Contents

  1. Psychology

  2. About the Book

  3. Approach and Pedagogy

  4. Acknowledgments

  5. I. Chapter 1. Introducing Psychology

    1. 1. 1.0 Introduction

    2. 2. 1.1 Psychology as a Science

    3. 3. 1.2 The Evolution of Psychology: History, Approaches, and Questions

    4. 4. 1.3 Psychologists at Work

    5. 5. 1.4 Psychology in Everyday Life

  6. II. Chapter 2. Psychological Science

    1. 6. 2.0 Introduction

    2. 7. 2.1 Psychologists Use the Scientific Method to Guide Their Research

    3. 8. 2.2 Research Designs in Psychology

    4. 9. 2.3 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

    5. 10. 2.4 Conducting Ethical Research

  7. III. Chapter 3. Brains, Biology, and Behaviour

    1. 11. 3.0 Introduction

    2. 12. 3.1 Neurons, Neurotransmitters, and Hormones

    3. 13. 3.2 Our Brains Control Our Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviour

    4. 14. 3.3 Psychologists Study the Brain Using Many Different Methods

    5. 15. 3.4 Putting It All Together: The Nervous System and the Endocrine System

    6. 16. 3.5 Evolution and Psychology

    7. 17. 3.6 Genes and Environments: Nature and Nurture

  8. IV. Chapter 4. States of Consciousness

    1. 18. 4.0 Introduction

    2. 19. 4.1 Sleeping and Dreaming Revitalize Us for Action

    3. 20. 4.2 Altering Consciousness With Psychoactive Drugs

    4. 21. 4.3 Altering Consciousness Without Drugs

  9. V. Chapter 5. Sensing and Perceiving

    1. 22. 5.0 Introduction

    2. 23. 5.1 Sensation and Perception

    3. 24. 5.2 Seeing

    4. 25. 5.3 Hearing

    5. 26. 5.4 Tasting, Smelling, and Touching

    6. 27. 5.5 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Perception

  10. VI. Chapter 6. Learning

    1. 28. 6.0 Introduction

    2. 29. 6.1 Learning by Association: Classical Conditioning

    3. 30. 6.2 Changing Behaviour Through Reinforcement and Punishment: Operant Conditioning

    4. 31. 6.3 Learning by Insight and Observation

    5. 32. 6.4 Using the Principles of Learning in Everyday Life

  11. VII. Chapter 7. Psychology in Our Social Lives

    1. 33. 7.0 Introduction

    2. 34. 7.1 Social Cognition: Making Sense of Ourselves and Others

    3. 35. 7.2 Interacting With Others: Helping, Hurting, and Conforming

    4. 36. 7.3 Working With Others: The Costs and Benefits of Social Groups

  12. VIII. Chapter 8. Cognition

    1. 37. 8.0 Introduction

    2. 38. 8.1 The Elements of Cognition

    3. 39. 8.2 Problem-Solving: Heuristics and Algorithms

    4. 40. 8.3 Cognitive Processes That May Lead to Inaccuracy

  13. IX. Chapter 9. Intelligence and Language

    1. 41. 9.0 Introduction

    2. 42. 9.1 Defining and Measuring Intelligence

    3. 43. 9.2 Individual Differences in Intelligence

    4. 44. 9.3 Communicating With Others: Development and Use of Language

  14. X. Chapter 10. Memory

    1. 45. 10.0 Introduction

    2. 46. 10.1 Memory Models and Systems

    3. 47. 10.2 Long-Term Memory: Categories and Structure

    4. 48. 10.3 Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Storage

    5. 49. 10.4 Biology of Memory

    6. 50. 10.5 Forgetting

    7. 51. 10.6 When Memory Is Wrong

  15. XI. Chapter 11. Emotions and Motivations

    1. 52. 11.0 Introduction

    2. 53. 11.1 The Experience of Emotion

    3. 54. 11.2 Theories of Motivation

    4. 55. 11.3 Motivation: Food and Sex

  16. XII. Chapter 12. Happiness and Stress

    1. 56. 12.0 Introduction

    2. 57. 12.1 The History of Positive Psychology

    3. 58. 12.2 The Science of Happiness

    4. 59. 12.3 Understanding Stress

    5. 60. 12.4 Stressors

    6. 61. 12.5 Promoting Wellness

  17. XIII. Chapter 13. Lifespan Development

    1. 62. 13.0 Introduction

    2. 63. 13.1 Conception and Prenatal Development

    3. 64. 13.2 Infancy and Childhood: Exploring, Learning, and Relating

    4. 65. 13.3 Development of Gender

    5. 66. 13.4 Adolescence: Developing Independence and Identity

    6. 67. 13.5 Early and Middle Adulthood: Building Effective Lives

    7. 68. 13.6 Late Adulthood: Aging, Retiring, and Bereavement

  18. XIV. Chapter 14. Personality

    1. 69. 14.0 Introduction

    2. 70. 14.1 Personality Measurement

    3. 71. 14.2 Personality as Traits

    4. 72. 14.3 Psychodynamic Origins of Personality

    5. 73. 14.4 Behaviourist and Social-Cognitive Perspectives on Personality

    6. 74. 14.5 Genetic and Environmental Influences on Personality

    7. 75. 14.6 Personality and Culture

  19. XV. Chapter 15. Psychological Disorders

    1. 76. 15.0 Introduction

    2. 77. 15.1 Psychological Disorder: The Challenges of Definition

    3. 78. 15.2 Insanity: A History of Mental Illness

    4. 79. 15.3 Anxiety and Related Disorders

    5. 80. 15.4 Dissociative Disorders

    6. 81. 15.5 Mood Disorders

    7. 82. 15.6 Schizophrenia: The Edge of Reality

    8. 83. 15.7 Personality Disorders

  20. XVI. Chapter 16. Treating Psychological Disorders

    1. 84. 16.0 Introduction

    2. 85. 16.1 Reducing Disorder by Confronting It: Psychotherapy

    3. 86. 16.2 Psychopharmacology and Brain-Based Therapies

    4. 87. 16.3 Reducing Disorder by Changing the Social Situation

    5. 88. 16.4 Evaluating Treatment and Prevention: What Works?

  21. About the Authors

  22. Versioning History